On the second day of the 1st Training School, Prof. Paul Verschure gave a lecture on neurocomputational methods for comparing VR and reality. With the title “Living Machines. The Brain in XR: from science to the real world and back”, Prof. Verschure explained how the distributed-adaptive control (DAC) model can be applied for comparing human interactions in virtual environments and physical reality. A new model of synthetic consciousness was also detailed. He finally showed several applications of the DAC model.